Impact of Globalization on Cultural Identity of Bangladesh: An Appraisal of the Legal Activities on the basis of the Opportunities and Challenges
Dr . Md. Iqbal Hossain
Globalization has become a buzzword in the new era of international relations. Basically it is a process of expanding trade and commerce all over the world by creating a borderless market. Now it has had a far reaching affect on aspect of life. With the development of hi-tech communication media and rapid transportation facilities, the whole world has squeezed and people have come closer to one another. Now we can learn in an instant what is happening in the farthest corner of the globe. In fact, globalization is currently understood mainly in terms of inter-connectedness of nations and regions in economic domain, in particular, trade, financial flows and traditional corporations. In other words, globalization is seen as an economic parallel to internationalization in the form of the universal rule of the market, notwithstanding the fact that there has been an interlined process of political and cultural globalization exemplified by increasing democratization, spread of English and transitionalisation of media, particularly television program and movies and wide awareness of global environmental problems. Globalization is not only confined with the business purpose. The tide of globalization is now encroaching into other spheres too. Satellite TV channels and internet are brining all sorts of different custom and behaviour into our homes. Under influence of globalization, global cultures are steadily getting integrated with local cultures. Different cultures are constantly interacting. From time immemorial we have our own traditional social values and cultures. But many foreign customs and beliefs are influenced by globalization. Globalization has a great impact on our cultural and educational identity. It has both negative and positive sides. Bangladesh can develop its cultural heritage and educational stability through state patronization and can establish itself as a rich cultural country applying the opportunities of globalization. This article aims to identify the impact of globalization on cultural and educational identity of Bangladesh. Here it has also been tried to evaluate the initiatives taken by the government for protection and promotion of cultural heritage.
- Globalization and Culture
The diverse socio-cultural identity of states was not considered at the Breton Woods Conference in 1944 which laid the rationales for economic globalization. The process has been entirely market- focused with no room for extra-economic factors, such as cultural fragmentation, in the equation. After the Breton Woods Conference GATT agreement was primarily signed by twenty three countries to remove various trade barriers that were obstacles against economic globalization since 1948. GATT has stood alone as the only international instrument for laying down the rules of conduct for trade and which has been accepted by a high proportion of leading trading nations. Globalization implies that regional outlook, behaviour and sense of living which abolished in a global process and people can not totally pass their living in a local way. Now for the development of globalization people are not bound to any geographical or marginal boundary. It is associated not only with an increasing cross border movement of goods, services, capital, technology, information and people but also with an organization of economic activities which straddles national boundaries. But when we speak globalization in the cultural point of view, globalization also stands for promotion of universal values without undermining the cultural diversity. Generally globalization is a transnationalization in cultural and economic life which creates one boundary and community in the world. Many persons describe it as a delocalization process.
The cultural heritage of a nation shapes their lives and builds their identity. Culture is a design for living. It affects all aspects of lives and varies from one society to another. Faced with cultural variations, people tend to consider their own culture superior to that of others. To combat this ethnocentrism, sociologists and other social scientists generally adopt an attitude of cultural relativism. It involves judging a culture on its own terms, seeing it through the eyes of its own members. Armed with cultural relativism and further fortified by scientific objectivity, sociologists have developed the following two perspectives to explain cultural variations:
- The ecological perspective, which attributes cultural variations to differences in physical environment.
- The functional perspective, which traces cultural variations to differences in the functions of certain cultural practices for the society as a whole.
While cultural universals reflect the general means by which all societies meet their common needs, the specific content of these means varies from culture to culture. Language, for example, is a cultural universal, but specific content varies from one society to another, as can be found in the differences among English, Chinese, French, Spanish and other specific languages. The variations in human cultures have long fascinated people. In the seventh and eighteenth centuries, Europeans read with wonder the tales of Americans, Indians and South Sea islanders provided by missionaries and explorers. But the ability of understanding other cultures and how own culture shapes own lives has been undermined by other equally old reactions.
By the name of globalization something new and positive is certainly happening in the world. One can know and share with all things related to the culture of other countries through globalization. For the blessing of globalization, one can get various new ideas about various cultures. This aspect of globalization contains the greatest potential for growth. Expression of moral vision contributes to an acceptance of the diversity of cultures. Globalization promotes the fundamental dignity of every human being, a depend awareness of human fellow, feeling and solidarity.
In the age of globalization, recreation, studies are being availed along with the international world. Satellite TV has become the modern media of mobilizing amusement, games and sports etc. In the present civilized world man is not solely separated in a state. Individual social states are now parts of globalized world. So man is to be imbued up with international spirit. To universalize this spirit there is no option but satellite TV. These TV channels not only broadcast recreational programs but also play the role of fostering merit and intellect. It also bears the stamp of progress in merit and intellect in the developed countries. In fact, satellite channels are the media of viewing and realizing international activities, cultural shows and so on.
One can have a very up-to-date idea about the latest development by means of information technology around the world. Global culture is a very popular slogan now. It becomes the demand of the present time to be acquainted with the international community’s races and cultures. Dish or satellite TV has a very pragmatic role in this regard. Each and every country is gradually getting enlivened with internationalism. As a result, concept of globalization is pioneering message to all of us. Dish Antenna or Satellite TV serves as a source of learning global culture, religions patterns of different nations and varied ways of life beyond one’s territory.
Though the globalization has positive impact on the world community, the steady erosion of sovereign authority of many third world countries under economic globalization has rendered them almost ineffective in preserving their local socio-cultural heritage and distinctive identity. Aggressive marketing through advertisement of foreign products swamps many local products until they disappear. Nestlé’s relentless marketing of its infant baby formula to replace breastfeeding in the third world caused widespread controversy. Foreign TV programs, films and radios constantly threaten social fabric, communal cohesion, cultural rights and moral values of many communities. The marketing and availability of illegal products over the Internet, such as child pornography and e-cash facilitating on-line gambling, have raised serious ethical and moral dilemmas in many countries. Broad-species plants and human cell-line application are permissible under the WTO TRIPS Agreement. The supply of genetically modified food and the patenting of human genetic materials (viz., DNA fragments) are sensitive issues even in developed states. Dominant elements of foreign cultures suppress the voices of local people and communities who find themselves unable to reconcile with the hegemonic cultural image with their personality and integrity. The obsessive pursuit of economic globalization has the potential of making the third world socially dysfunctional and cultural bankrupt.
The impact of globalization is mounting external pressures on local and indigenous cultures to change. This social cost of globalization has been emphasized by the UN Secretary – General:
Development strategies, which have been oriented merely towards economic growth and financial considerations have failed to a large extent to achieve social justice, human rights have been infringed, directly and through depersonalization of social relations, the breakdown of families and communities, and of social and economic life.
- Impact of Globalization on Bangladeshi Culture
Culture reflects the way of living, eating, talking and learning. It has a broad and wide meaning. It consists of music, literature, drama and other aspects of fine arts. The true picture of a country is projected through its cultural identity. Though Bangladesh is a small country in respect of size and development, it has rich cultural resources. Our cultural heritage is worth everywhere in our life. Bangladesh has a rich and distinct culture and tradition. This culture and tradition is rooted in its soil. Its ecological nature is different from others. We have rich heritage of music. We have different types of songs. These are classical music, various folk songs, Tagore song, Nazrul songs, Ramprashad songs, Hasan Raja song, Atual Prashad songs, Lalon songs and above modern bangla songs. Classical music and folk songs are practiced since ancient times. There is no specific history of the invention of classical music. In those days, music used to be practiced within limited social patience. Our music has a rich bulk ground. In the ancient period, music was only used as eulogy of the gods and goddess. The Muslims gave it a new form. Before the Middle Ages a type of song ‘geet’ was very popular. A new type of classical music namely ‘punthi’ was introduced in the eighteenth century. It was based on opera and was lyrical in nature. The background of folk songs is the rural setting of life, nature, human joys and sorrows. Bhawaya, Bhatiali, Baul, Gambhira, Marfati are few of the infinite varieties of folk songs. The new era of music was created by great musician Amir Khusru. With the union of Persian and indigenous music, he created a new type of music. At present our cultural heritage is being further enriched and fished may characteristics of western culture.
Our literature contains the culture and life style of Bengalese. We have a wide stock of novels, lyrical poetries, epics, prose etc. We have litterateurs like Rabindranath, Sharatchandra, Bankim, Bivuti Vushon, Mir Mosarraf and others; great poets Nazrul, Michel Modhusudan Datta, Jasim Uddin and others. Without reading those novels, poetries and epics, one cannot be pure Bengali. These creations tell the tale of pure life style of Bengalese without any impact of globalization. Besides this, drama, jatrapala, bioscope etc are also our cultural heritage. Moncha Natak (stage drama) is also our traditional culture. Beyond these, various modern drama become the culture of our country.
Bangladeshi Monipuri Nritto is familiar in all over the world and it is an asset of Bangladeshi culture. Various traditional dances and modern dances are enjoyable to us.
Various traditional and interesting games are part of our cultural heritage. Golla sut, dariabandha, ha-do-do, nouka baich, morag lorai, lathi khela etc are important traditional games of Bangladesh. We have boli khela instead of western wrestling.
Our paintings contain the cultural identity of Bangladesh. Poster sobi is the special item of Bangalee culture. Rickshaws represent a convincing example of Bangladeshis’ love for art and artistic works. Our art gallery displays cottage, oil painting, cut-work etc.
Bengalese have own traditional cultures on eating food. We have a distinct habit to take meal. Fish, dal and rice are the common items of our food list. Various types of pitha (cake) are also important feature of our food culture. Puli pitha, pati shapta, vapa pitha, chitoi pitha, shemai pitha, jamai pitha and various kinds of designed cakes are popular in Bangladesh.
Traditional dress of Bengalese is shari and lungi. Bengali girls used to wear selowear and kamiz, mexi, top scuts, borkha etc. and male folk used to wear shirt, pant, genji, panjabi, dhuti, paijama, sheroyani, fotua etc. Bangladeshi Zamdani and kathan are world famous assets of Bangladesh.
Bangladesh is known as “thirteen festivals in 12 months country.” Traditionally Bengalese are used to enjoying festivals. “Pahela Boishakh” is the largest functions of Bengalese which is observed in all over the country. In this day we have many plans to welcome new Bangla year. “Panta Ilish” is the traditional food item of this day. Halkhata, basanta boron utshob, nobanna utshob, various kinds of fair etc. are the core functions of Bengalese. Besides, there are various religious functions of Bengalese. These are Eid-ul-Fitre and Eid-ul- Azha, Siratunabbi Mahfil etc. for Muslims, Durga puja, sharoshati puja, kali puja, jami shashthi for Hindus, Christmas day for Christians etc.
Our cultural heritage of hundred years is now being fabricated by the name of globalization. We are gradually on the verge of losing the good things that formed a part of our rich cultural heritage. Culture reflects the way of living, eating, talking and learning. Our traditional dress culture is on the way of loosing. Now a day, people are greatly influenced by the ideas of fashion. There are many young boys who follow the dress worn by foreign film stars; the latest craze is the many pocketed trousers. Wherever we cast our eyes we see young women clad in shalwar kamiz, trousers or shirts.
Though our cultural heritage is rich in traditional folk songs, the young generations do not like our old aged songs and musical instruments. They love to listen western music. They don’t know their own singers but they know the western musicians. For these reasons our music becomes extinct. Satellite TV culture has a great impact to our native culture. A good number of satellite channels are like monstrous grip because of amoral and libidinal displays. Naked films dance shows and music shows are on the air and accessible to the soft hearted youths through dish antenna. Most of the times TV ads are displayed in distorted forms. At dead night some channels telecast some programs like blue film, naked model show etc. Amoral displays are more eyes catching than instructive programs to the teenagers. Young generations are misguided by these programs. Alien cultures are intruding into our native culture and native cultures may be endangered by them. The advent of satellite television in Bangladesh, which is changing the behavioural pattern of its people, threatens the age old values, enriched culture and tradition of the country. The changes occurred particularly in daily television watching behaviour, day-to-day lifestyle, dress-up, fashion, career plan, use of slang term, in showing respect to the seniors, trend to show off heroism and violence. Youths, particularly teenagers who are exposed to the international satellite channels with a huge number of violence through household cable connections, are posing serious threats to our culture and tradition. When satellite television made its journey in Bangladesh nearly two decades ago, nobody could really foresee that it would have a tremendous impact on our everyday life.
The socio-political and cultural impacts were largely ignored when the government decided to give permission to receive signals directly for telecast in its territory in 1992. No prior study was conducted before giving the permission and no significant study was carried out since the inception of cable TV network. Presently speaking style of a whole generation of young Bangladeshis is being shaped up by the programs aired by nearly hundred channels of different cable network. A research survey shows the real impact of satellite TV on our culture. The survey reveals the following:
- 1 per cent of city dwellers have had a little interaction with family members now what they do have earlier. Now 52.1 per cent respondents have little time on interest to pay social visit, take part in traditional gossip, different ceremonies or family functions.
- The respondents believe that 41 per cent of the youths are interested to speak in Hindi at the advent of ‘cultural aggression’ on the people of Bangladesh.
- It said that the audiences are spending 2-3 hours more in watching satellite television programs and gradually losing interest in social visits or even the interactions among family members.
- 1 per cent of city dwellers have had a little interaction with family members now what they do have earlier. Now 52.1 per cent respondents have little time on interest to pay social visit, take part in traditional gossip, different ceremonies or family functions.
- Legal Regime to Protect Cultural Heritage of Bangladesh
Culture is the picture of the entire life of a sociality. One’s every day’s life-style and workings are the bearer of a culture. The main elements of culture is, knowledge, believe, education, language, tradition, laws etc. and many more things which helps a human to make him popular in the society and also a member of a nation. A good number of international human rights instruments keep the provisions regarding participation and development of cultural activities. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948 declares that everyone has the right freely to participate in cultural life of the community, to enjoy arts and to share in scientific advancement and its benefits. Later in 1966, the ICESCR made a binding obligation to the State Parties for recognizing and implementing cultural life of human. In line with the international human rights instruments, Bangladesh provides the same in its legal instruments. Article 23 of its Constitution stipulates that the State shall adopt measures to conserve the cultural traditions and heritage of the people, and so to foster and improve the national language, literature and the arts that all sections of the people are afforded the opportunity to contribute towards and to participate in the enrichment of the national culture. Article 24 provides that the State shall adopt measures for the protection against disfigurement, damage or removal of all monuments, objects or places or special artistic or historic importance or interest. For these purposes the Ministry of Cultural Affairs is working as a separate ministry for safeguarding the cultures and traditions. The main object of this ministry by the act of parliament of Bangladesh is:
- Preservation, research and development of national cultural heritage and fine arts of Bangladesh.
- Archaeology, architecture and sculpture.
- Promotion and development of Public Libraries/ National Library.
- To facilitate introduction of Bengali language in all fields of life.
- Maintenance and repairs of ancient and historical monuments including those declared to be of national importance.
- (a) Observance of Shaheed Day on the 21st February.
1) Amended Vide Cabinet Division Notification No. CD-4/1/94-Rules (Part-2)/81, Dated-31st July, 2000.
(b) 21st February Award (Ekushe Padak).
- Grants-in-aid to cultural organization.
- International Organizations and other international programmes in the fields of culture and heritage.
- Encouragement in the growth and development of fine arts and national culture and heritage.
- Pride of performance ; merit awards in fine arts, culture, heritage, etc.
- Organizations and participation in national and international cultural meets.
- Development of publications in the fields of literature, culture and heritage.
- National bodies relating to culture and heritage and grants-in-aid to them.
- Cultural agreements with foreign countries.
- Exchange of cultural teams with foreign countries.
- Folk literature, folk culture, folk museum.
- Pension to literatures, artists, etc.
- Secretariat administration including financial matters.
- Administration and control of subordinate offices and organizations under this Ministry.
- Liaison with International Organizations and matters relating to treaties and agreements with other countries and world bodies relating to subjects allotted to this Ministry.
- All laws and subjects allotted to this Ministry.
- Statistics on any of the subjects allotted to this Ministry.
- Fees in respect of any of the subjects allotted to this Ministry except fees taken in courts
In 2006, Bangladesh Government has declared the National Cultural Policies 2006 for safeguarding and promoting the national culture as well as the tangible and intangible cultural heritage of Bangladesh. For having a proper widening to our culture, the government thinks that it should have a national cultural policy. In this situation, and following the two provisions of the Constitution also internationally following UNESCO’s preliminary draft of a Convention on the Protection of the Diversity of Cultural Contents and Artistic Expression-2004, the TRIPS contract with WTO, Copy Right Act, Rome convention (1961) and having similarities with Berne Convention, this national cultural policy has created.
Objectives of the National Cultural Policy of 2006
(a) By following the traditional cultures, to maintain the existence of all the communities in Bangladesh along with having their religious believes.
(b) To combine the cultural works with the entire financial development.
(c) To maintain the cultural development between the ethnic communities, and keep a good relation between them.
(d) Accept the good things in the culture and stop the bad things.
The Basic Rules of National Cultural Policy of 2006
(a) To take proper actions for safeguard and promote the cultures of thousand years of the people living in this land and the ideals of freedom war of the country
(b) To take necessary steps for the proper widening of our national culture and have it in the national development.
Bangladesh is working to uphold its cultural identity through its different agencies. One Shilpakala Academy has been set up in each district in Bangladesh which is assigned to give cultural training to its people. Moreover, for promoting cultural activities of the aboriginal people several cultural institutions have been established in there different places in Bangladesh, viz., Upajatiya Sangaskritik Academy at Birishiri in Netrokona, Tribal Cultural Academy at Dinajpur and the first Tribal Cultural Institute of Bangladesh has been established in Rangamati district by the Ministry of Cultural Affairs.
Western culture is in many ways different from Eastern culture. But as a result of globalization eastern culture is being influenced and in some extent replaced by western culture. Eastern culture is based on religious beliefs like Islam, Hinduism, Jainism and the Buddhism. The followers of these religions are quite reluctant to do anything or to follow any other dictation, culture and instruction neglecting the dictates of the above religions. But western culture is an individually oriented culture. The individual’s needs, rights and privileges are of utmost significant. An individual under the western culture can master the forces of nature and always he thinks. He forgets his taboos and useless pre-conceived notions which are normally associated with eastern culture. Western cultural is based on scientific and materialistic notations. At the present time, we can never deny the impact of western culture. We must adopt what is logical, rational, reasonable and truthful in western culture. Our sacred scriptures have emphasized on the values of truth and work. We must therefore, adopt meticulous behaviour, technical aptitude and swiftness from the western culture. We should not accept decline of moral values. But, unfortunately our young generations are fond of western culture for they watch and enjoy violence, fighting, wrestling, boxing and naked films on TV through satellite channels. They neglect, hate and ignore our culture but welcome the western culture. They intend to live a western life avoiding eastern culture. But utilizing the door of globalization we can introduce ourselves to the world community focusing our rich and distinct cultural heritage. For fulfilling this objectives private patronization side by side the state patronization is needed. Some private initiatives already tried to uphold our cultural identity through several creative as well as recreational programs, for example- after the landslide success of “Close-Up 1” initiated by Ntv in collaboration with Unilever, hundred of reality shows have been started in different television channels of Bangladesh. In the earlier stage, it was based on music competitions and the target group was more or less youngsters. It has been diversified very rapidly and the range of participants has also been widening. Now rickshaw pullers, construction workers, garment employees, kids and band groups under so many categories are running to be champions. Moreover, dancing, acting, reciting, magic show etc. are being included as items of competitions. These competitions are not only holding among Bangladeshi’s but also the Bangladeshi’s and Indian’s, viz., “shur doria- apar opar”, shur doria Bagha gaain” etc. These competitions enrich the community and good relations between the two countries. In this way, the inter connections or inter relations among various countries is being developed day by day. For the sack of globalization, we can enjoy various educative channels like ‘Discovery’, ‘Animal Planet’, ‘National Geography’ etc., by which we can enrich our knowledge. However, for overcoming the negative impact of globalization following steps should necessarily be considered:
- To formulate a comprehensive satellite broadcasting policy, building up a balanced broadcasting infrastructure and framing of an appropriate broadcasting strategy to ensure the projection of local heritage.
- To export our own products (viz., dress, cloths, jute made goods, lay modelling handicrafts etc.) in the world markets that carry our culture and tradition.
- To use native products for creating patriotism.
- To make habit to watch native movies and native TV channels and to encourage the young generation to watch it. Producers should make movies considering our culture and traditions so that our native people as well as the world community can learn more about our culture by the contribution of satellite TV channels.
- To raise religious sentiment and image so that we can give up foreign cultures which are evil to our native culture.
- Our TV channels and mass media can present our tradition and culture to the world levees. So they can get aware about our culture.
- To arrange cultural programs in local areas and air it through satellite TV channels.
- To develop science and technology as per the commitment given in various international human rights treaty for presenting our cultural heritage effectively to the world community.
- Rafiqul Islam, “Protecting Human Rights in an era of Globalization”, Dr. Mizanur Rahman (ed.) Human Rights and Globalization, Dhaka: ELCOP, 2003
Nayyar, Globalization and its Impact in our Sub-continent, New Delhi, Revised in 1991.
Alex Thio, Sociology: An Introduction, Harper and Row Publishers, New York
- Vaghefi, S. Paulson and W Tomlinson, ‘International Business: Theory and Practice’, Taylor and Francis, New York, 1991
D Rothkoof, “In Praise of Cultural Imperialism?” (1997) 107 Foreign Policy
Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, 1948.
For detail please see, article 15 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966.
 . Dr . Md. Iqbal Hossain, Associate Professor, Da`wah and Islamic Studies, Islamic University, Kushtia Bangladesh.
 . Globalization (or globalisation) describes a process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a globe-spanning network of communication and trade. The term is sometimes used to refer specifically to economic globalization: the integration of national economies into the international economy through trade, foreign direct investment, capital flows, migration, and the spread of technology.However, globalization is usually recognized as being driven by a combination of economic, technological, socio-cultural, political, and biological factors. The term can also refer to the transnational circulation of ideas, languages, or popular culture through acculturation. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Globalization access 28 April 2010
 M. Rafiqul Islam, “Protecting Human Rights in an era of Globalization”, Dr. Mizanur Rahman (ed.) Human Rights and Globalization, (Dhaka: ELCOP), 2003, p. 25.
 Nayyar, Globalization and its Impact in our Sub-continent, New Delhi, Revised in 1991.
 Alex Thio, Sociology: An Introduction, Harper and Row Publishers, New York, p. 54.
 M. Vaghefi, S. Paulson and W Tomlinson, ‘International Business: Theory and Practice’, Taylor and Francis, New York, 1991, p. 251.
 D Rothkoof, “In Praise of Cultural Imperialism?” (1997) 107 Foreign Policy, 46.
 Report of the UN Secretary – General to the Commission on Human Rights titled :`Question of the Realization of the Right to Development: Global Consultation on Realization of the Right to Development as a Human Right’, prepared under Resolution 1989/45, ECOSOC Official Record; Commission on Human Rights 46th session, agenda item 8; 153 UN doc. E/CN.4/1990/9/Rev. 1.
 . Rabindranath Tagore (Bengali: রবীন্দ্রনাথ ঠাকুর) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), sobriquet Gurudev, was an Indian Bengali polymath. He was one of the most popular poet, novelist, musician, and playwright, who reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. As author of Gitanjali and its “profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse”, in 1913 being the first Asian to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, Tagore was perhaps the most important literary figure of Bengali literature. He was a mesmerising representative of the Indian culture whose influence and popularity internationally perhaps could only be compared to that of Gandhi, whom Tagore named ‘Mahatma‘ out of his deep admiration for him. http://www.moca.gov.bd/read_more_welcome.php 12.05.2010
 . Nazrul Geeti or Nazrul Sangeet, literally “music of Nazrul,” refer to the works of Kazi Nazrul Islam, national poet of Bangladesh and active revolutionary during the Indian Independence Movement. Nazrul Sangeet incorporate revolutionary notions as well as more spiritual, philosophical and romantic themes. This is a complete listing of the works by Kazi Nazrul Islam, in the Bengali language. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazrul_geeti used 16/04/2010
 . Ramprasad Sen is regarded as one of the notable figures of the bhakti movement in Bengal during the eighteenth century.He is credited with popularizing the bhakti Shakta tradition and Shyama Sangeet—devotional songs to the goddess Kali. Ramprasad was the first Shakta poet to address Kali with such intimate devotion, and to sing of her as a tender loving mother or even as a little girl. After him, a school of Shakta poets continued the Kali-bhakti tradition. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramprasad_Sen used 16/04/2010.
 . Fakir Lalon Shah (Bangla: ফকির লালন সাঁই), also known as Lalon Shah (c. 1774–1890), was a Bengali philosopher poet. He lived in the village of Cheuria in the area known as Nadia in the Bengal Presidency of British India, corresponding to the district of Kushtia in present-day Bangladesh. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ramprasad_Sen used 16/04/2010.
 . Kazi Nazrul Islam (Bengali: কাজী নজরুল ইসলাম Kazi Nozrul Islam) (26 May 1899–29 August 1976) was a Bengali poet, musician and revolutionary who pioneered poetic works espousing intense spiritual rebellion against fascism and oppression. His poetry and nationalist activism earned him the popular title of Bidrohi Kobi (Rebel Poet). Accomplishing a large body of acclaimed works through his life, Nazrul is officially recognised as the national poet of Bangladesh and commemorated in India. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nazrul
 . Jasimuddin (Bangla: জসীমউদ্দীন) (full name Jasimuddin Mollah) (1903-1976) was a renowned Bengali poet, songwriter, prose writer, folklore collector and radio personality. He is commonly known in Bangladesh as Polli Kobi, the Rural Poet for his faithful rendition of Bangla folklore in his works. Jasimuddin was also one of the pioneers of the progressive and non-communal cultural movement in East Pakistan. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jasim_Uddin
 . Manipuri dance is one of the major Indo-Bangal classical dance forms. It originates from Manipur, a state in north-eastern India on the border with Myanmar (also known as Burma and part of Bangladesh). In Manipur, surrounded by mountains and geographically isolated at the meeting point of the orient and mainland India, the form developed its own specific aesthetics, values, conventions and ethics. The cult of Radha and Krishna, particularly the raslila, is central to its themes but the dances, unusually, incorporate the characteristic cymbals (kartal or manjira) and double-headed drum (pung or Manipuri mridang) of sankirtan into the visual performance.Manipuri dancers do not wear ankle bells to accentuate the beats tapped out by the feet, in contrast with other Indian dance forms, and the dancers’ feet never strike the ground hard. Movements of the body and feet and facial expressions in Manipuri dance are subtle and aim at devotion and grace. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Manipuri_dance
 . Bengali New Year (Bengali: নববর্ষ Nôbobôrsho) or Poyela Boishakh (পহেলা বৈশাখ Pôhela Boishakh or পয়লা বৈশাখ Pôela Boishakh) is the 2000 day of the Bengali calendar, celebrated in both Bangladesh and West Bengal, and in Bengali communities in Assam and Tripura. It coincides with the New Year’s Days of numerous Southern Asian calendars. Pohela Boishakh connects all ethnic Bengalis irrespective of religious and regional differences. In India, in West Bengal and Assam it is a public (state) holiday and is publicly celebrated in mid April. In Bangladesh, it is a national holiday celebrated around April 14 according to the official amended calendar designed by the Bangla Academy. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pahela_Boishakh access 15.05.2010
 For detail please see, article 15 of the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, 1966.
 . http://www.moca.gov.bd/read_more_welcome.php
 . Bangladesh Shilpakala Academy (Bangla: শিল্পকলা একাডেমী) (National Academy of Fine and Performing Arts) is the principal state-sponsored national cultural center of Bangladesh. It is a successor to the former Pakistan Arts Council. Shilpakala Academy was established at Segunbagicha, Dhaka in 1974 by the Ministry of Cultural Affairs, Govt. of Bangladesh. The academy consists of five administrative divisions: (1) Research and Publication Division, (2) Finance, Accounts and Planning Division, (3) Fine Arts Division, (4) Drama Division and (5) Music and Dance Division. These divisions are run by five directors. The Director General, who is appointed by the Government of Bangladesh, is the chief executive of the academy. The principal objectives of this institution are presenting the Culture of Bangladesh and fostering the arts including fine arts, music, dance and drama. The activities of the Academy include patronizing and helping artists, sanctioning grants to Government-approved cultural institutions and organisations, conducting research on traditional heritage and culture, arranging art exhibitions and organising festivals of music and drama at national and international levels. It also holds cultural functions, arranges conferences, seminars, symposia, workshops, debates. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banglapedia excess 18.05.2010