Interfaith Dialogue (الحوار) in Islam and in the Muslim World
Dr. Md. Iqbal Hossain
Interfaith dialogue is one of the most important and major issues in this present inconstant world. The interfaith movement is an opportunity to engage with adherents of other religious traditions, instance in positive ways, to share faith based co-existence policy and to celebrate social and cultural relations for the development of human recourses and fare free society. Particularly for the Muslims, nowadays, it is an excellent way to dispel myths and misunderstandings about Islam after the rising of some outlaws and terrorist forces in the name of Islam. Al-Quran encourages interfaith dialogue with the verse:ادْعُ إِلَى سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ وَجَادِلْهُمْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ “Invite all to the way of your Lord with wisdom and beautiful preaching; and engage with them in ways that are best and most gracious” . Interfaith dialogue is a necessary human instinct and societal needs to formulate the fabric of a network of relations that can only be settled by dialogue and understanding among the the networks. Dialogue is important and Islam emphasize on it for greater worldly brotherhood. We are examining in this article the basic concept of interfaith dialogue policy, technique and importance for greater understanding of the human kind.
Key words: Interfaith, Co-existence, legitimate, disseminate, Dialogue, Rhetoric, Orientalism
- Concept of interfaith Dialogue: (مفهوم الحوار بين الأديان)
The existence of different religions in this era of globalization is remarkable. Peoples are coming together and talking together in the context of social, economic, political, cultural, natural disaster, business, trade and gathering. On the other hand conflicts, intolerance in different ethnicities, religions are increasing among the people’s daily life. Dialogue means creating a mutually favorable environment by eliminating misunderstanding of each others, removing narrowness to strengthen the relationship. There are a lot of enthusiasms for interfaith dialogue in different fields. Inter-religion dialogue and Inter-religion harmony are a widely discussed topic in the recent world. Interfaith dialogue and harmony are important for mutual harmony, safe coexistence and universal human values. Islam is the second largest religion in the world. Islam came for peace and upholds the world humanity. So Islam always encouraged relationships with everyone in world perspective. We will discuses in this article importance of interfaith dialogue in the light of the Qur’an and Hadith and present position of the Muslim world.
- Definition of interfaith Dialogue (تعريف الحوار بين الأديان)
The term interfaith dialogue refers to cooperative, constructive and positive interaction between people of different religious traditions and / or spiritual or humanistic beliefs, at both the individual and institutional levels. It is distinct from syncretism or alternative religion, in that dialogue often involves promoting understanding between different religions or beliefs to increase acceptance of others, rather than to synthesize new beliefs.
The Archdiocese of Chicago’s Office for Ecumenical and Interreligious Affairs defines “the difference between ecumenical, interfaith, and interreligious relations,” as follows: (i)”ecumenical” as “relations and prayer with other Christians,” (ii)”interfaith” as “relations with members of the ‘Abrahamic faiths’ (Jewish and Muslim traditions),” and (iii)”interreligious” as “relations with other religions, such as Hinduism and Buddhism.”
Muhammad Abu Kalif Said in Journal ‘Akher Tahdis:
حوار الأديان هو مصطلح يُشير إلى التفاعل، والبناء والإيجابي بين الناس من تقاليد دينية مختلفة، ومعتقدات روحيّة، وإنسانيّة سواء كان ذلك على مستوى الفرديّة، والمؤسسيّة، وهو يختلف عن التوفيق بين المعتقدات أو الدين البديل؛ حيث يتم في هذا الحوار تعزيز التفاهم بين الأديان أو المعتقدات المختلفة لزيادة قبول الآخر، بدلاً من تجميع معتقدات جديدة
[Interfaith dialogue is a term that refers to interaction, constructive and positive interaction among people of different religious traditions, spiritual and human beliefs, both at the individual and institutional level. It is different from reconciling beliefs or alternative religion. Different beliefs increase acceptance of the other, rather than grouping new beliefs.’]
- Principle of Interfaith Dialogue: (مبادئ الحوار بين الأديان)
Fundamental Principals of The dialogue accordance with the Quran and the Sunnah of the noble Prophet are:
- Dialogue in Islamic term can be identified three types:
3.1.1 Beauty and Recognition of Allah: Dialogue happened for disseminating message of Oneness of Allah. Finally the Muslims will invite Islam.
- Debate: the opinion against the opinion and purpose of the clarification of the truth, and debates of what is between the Muslim scholars and their followers, including what is with the followers of other faiths and laws.
- The Dialogue: which is allowed by Islam in matters that are based on wisdom and mental consideration, and dialogues that can be through this type include :
- Dialogue between parties and groups in one society for the purpose of establishing values and ideals and resisting evil and evil as long as everyone believes in these values and calls for them.
- Dialogue to address injustice and aggression in order to spread justice and the realization of the right and because God commands justice and forbids injustice.
- The dialogue of social contracting or reformed and this is a matter of recognition of the diverse society.
- Dialogue in the light of the basic principles of human relations
(الحوار في ضوء المبادئ الأساسية للعلاقات البشرية )
- Dialogue is a peaceful mean of dealing with people in life. It may be direct or indirect and dialogue does not require much effort to know that it is practiced in the best way is to follow the best methods and best to convince the opponent or the objection to the idea of dialogue. The elements that must be provided in the dialogue process are:
- The topic and purpose of the dialogue.
- Knowledge of the interlocutors of the subject and dimensions and prospects.
- The appropriate and calm atmosphere for dialogue.
- The scientific method of dialogue.
- Mutual respect between the parties involved.
- Trust in the personality of the interlocutor who manages the dialogue process or the interlocutors.
- The outcome of the dialogue and the consequent human actions in the arena of life.
- In view of the development of human relations between Muslims, nations and other peoples according to the nature of the age and the requirements of life, these relations have principles and foundations on which to base them. These foundations are:
4.2.1 Tawheed, which is the call of all prophets and messengers as name Dawah
وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ قَبْلِكَ مِنْ رَسُولٍ إِلاَّ نُوحِي إِلَيْهِ أَنَّهُ لا إِلَهَ إِلاَّ أَنَا فَاعْبُدُونِ
Therefore, dialogue with non-Muslims should take into account the fact that they do not insult their faith so as not to lead to fear of Islam and Muslims.
4.2.2 the unity of human origin, which is confirmed by the Qoranic verses and dignified speeches to confirm the unity of human origin and the greatest differences of discrimination between human beings, all human beings of the same Adam and they are in front of their Creator Allah says :
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمْ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ) وقال تعالى: (وَمِنْ آيَاتِهِ أَنْ خَلَقَكُمْ مِنْ تُرَابٍ ثُمَّ إِذَا أَنْتُمْ بَشَرٌ تَنتَشِرُونَ
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said:
” لا فضل لعربي على عجمي ولا لأبيض على أسود ولا لأسود على أحمر إلا بالتقوى” وقول عليه الصلاة والسلام: ” والناس بنو آدم وآدم من تراب” أخرجه أحمد .
4.2.3 The dignity of the human. This honor is not special to anyone without a color or without another, but all equal. He said:
وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَاهُمْ مِنْ الطَّيِّبَاتِ
4.2.4 Human cooperation. Which is a common principle of advocacy and dialogue between Muslims and other human beings almighty said:
وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَى وَلا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ
As called by the Prophet peace be upon him in his conversations and treaties between the tribes and other nations, where he said:
” الله في عون العبد مادام العبد في عون أخيه”.
“God help the slave as long as the slave helps his brother.”
4.2.5 Tolerance is an invitation to tolerance between individuals and groups in the non-surrender of evil and the promotion of hostility, which is better. Allah says:
وَلا تَسْتَوِي الْحَسَنَةُ وَلا السَّيِّئَةُ ادْفَعْ بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ فَإِذَا الَّذِي بَيْنَكَ وَبَيْنَهُ عَدَاوَةٌ كَأَنَّهُ وَلِيٌّ حَمِيمٌ
4.2.6 Freedom: It is known that dialogue with the other people needs a large area of freedom that provides an atmosphere free of fear.
4.2.7 Virtue: It is one of the greatest values that must be demonstrated by the human soul in social life, where jurisprudence and dream and honor and humility and tolerance of virtues called for by Islam and desire. He said:
فَمَنْ اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ فَاعْتَدُوا عَلَيْهِ بِمِثْلِ مَا اعْتَدَى عَلَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ مَعَ الْمُتَّقِينَ
4.2.8. Justice is the goal of all human beings and the basis of the universe, and no deviation from it instills hatred and raises hurricanes and revenge. It is the supreme value in Islam and the pillars of good and mercy and reform.
4.2.9. The fulfillment of the covenant: A general principle imposed by God on Muslims, and urged the Quran to fulfill the Covenant, which he considered the strength of faith, political, social and economic and the weakness of the weakness
وَأَوْفُوا بِالْعَهْدِ إِنَّ الْعَهْدَ كَانَ مَسْئُولاً
4.2.10 Affection: This is Allah`s order to reach among humans since the brotherhood of humanity is fixed must be connected and not true cut off He said:
لا يَنْهَاكُمْ اللَّهُ عَنْ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ أَنْ تَبَرُّوهُمْ وَتُقْسِطُوا إِلَيْهِمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ (8) إِنَّمَا يَنْهَاكُمْ اللَّهُ عَنْ الَّذِينَ قَاتَلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَأَخْرَجُوكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ وَظَاهَرُوا عَلَى إِخْرَاجِكُمْ أَنْ تَوَلَّوْهُمْ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمْ الظَّالِمُونَ
- Rules and Ethics of Interfaith dialogue : (قواعد وأخلاقيات الحوار بين الأديان)
Dialogue and determine of its dimensions means each party or group to the dialogue to identify the idea that they proceed in the way of proof or denied because ignorance and details turn dialogue into a method of insults and whispers.
- Ilm or Knowledge: A meaningful dialogue is useful is that in which people who have a degree of knowledge of the topics that are the subject of dialogue, the Noble Quran warned to the dangers of debate and dialogue without knowledge.
- Objectivity and intended to be leading axes reach the truth without fanaticism or stalemate, objectivity means acknowledging the existence of the opponent.
- starting the dialogue from the points of meeting and understanding, because that makes the souls in the case of acceptance of what will be offered by the other party as long as the interests shared where it can not evoke a crowd of points of contradiction and disagreement and then sit to talk with his opponent as this dialogue will be filled with emotion and convulsion.
- Rhetoric in the saying and the intention to use appropriate expression methods that deliver the message that the sender wants to reach the recipient, and this requires not to use words or phrases ambiguous meanings and meanings.
- The good word, the good word is composed and sweetened souls, which gives way to reach the mosques common among the interlocutors, and the good word do its work in the listeners.
- Good Character: which is a basis that preserves reverence and prestige and prevents degrade the Council and interlocutors, and warned Imam al – Juwaini to that said: The best thing in the conservative debate of each of the arguments on the basis of spreading peace and love.
- Balance Action: Balance and satisfaction are intended to enter the person to the deep route of dialogue and debate in a state of psychological stability away from the emotion Caused by a state of imbalance in order to influence the surrounding. But the trouble and confussion does not strengthen a sound dialogue or a meaningful debate.
- Respect for the opponent and not disdain, this is forbidden because the beginning of this will be exchanged by the other party the same speech leading to arguments and reasons spoil the dialogue and away from its goals.
- The dialogue between Muslims on the diversity of their doctrines and between Muslims and other religions in order to live a decent at the national and national levels or at the global level needs to be the theme of values governing relations between people and everything that establishes a stable life of justice and respect for human dignity.
- The dialogue of the Islamic site has a main purpose is to spread the mercy for which the Messenger of God sent this mercy is not only for the followers of Islam, but mercy, which is supported by Islam for all human beings.
- Dialogue within the rules adopted and on the sound foundations of the constants of the Holy Quran and Sunnah is necessary if there are etiquette to be set. If dialogue is necessary, dialogue can not be left to individual initiatives and to the interests and desires of those who are manipulative and excessive. The formation of institutions with their purposes and governments, controls and structure to play this role, and participate in these dialogues through specialized institutions, scientists and intellectuals and and group of experts those who are do not exit its tracks and controls to prevent confusion and deviation of Paths to harmful directions.
Saad Ali Shahrani said, The West today is in dire need of explaining the truths of Islam and its great virtues, and it is our duty to save these factions. Dialogue comes as one of the most effective and effective means of advocacy, but this dialogue should achieve legitimate objectives:
- Calling (Dawah il Alllah) to Allaah. 2. Statement of falsehood and arrogance. 3. Rejection of suspicions and detection of Zigha and immunize others from falling into it. 4. Reforming the stereotyped image of Islam in the West. 5. To show and show the tolerance of Islam. 6. Sorry to God in the performance of honesty and testimony to the people. 7. The administration of justice and the payment of injustice. 8. Mutual understanding between Islam and the West. 9. Cooperation to achieve common interests and defend the values and principles virtuous. 10. Prevent the evils of Muslims.
The caveats to Muslim at the time of Dialogue:
- Loyalty to the West and lack of innocence of infidelity. 2. Be careful not to fall into the call for rapprochement between religions. 3. The superiority of the axes and the feeling of superiority on the opposite axes. 4. Make concessions on constants and Muslims. 5. Non-disclosure of the truth and statement of truths of Islam and its principles bone. 6. To devote attention to dialogue with the West and don`t neglect other peoples and nations.
- Etiquette of interfaith Dialogue: (آداب الحوار بين الأديان)
6.1 Etiquette of the parties or groups to the dialogue is very important. Saleh bin Abdullah al Hamid explains etiquette should be:
6.1.1 Say well and avoid the challenge: (القول الحَسَن واجتناب أسلوب التحدّي)
The person concerned should discuss in a good manner, away from insulting and insulting the other side. He does not deliberately sign it in embarrassment and defy it. He must be polite and polite during the conversation. He must refrain from ridicule and anger the other party.
6.1.2. Commitment to a specific time to talk (الالتزام بوقت مُحدّد للحديث)
Everyone should have a certain ability to focus and listen to the other side. The axes should not talk too much, but rather talk briefly and take into account the desire of others to talk and the value of their time. It is better for the speaker to finish his speech before people feel bored and homeless.
6.1.3. Restrict dialogue in a limited venue (حَصْر الحِوار في مكان مَحدود الحُضور):
Dialogue in a public meeting can lead to chaos, confusion of ideas. In addition, one party may find it difficult to hand over the other to the audience, so the dialogue should be in a limited audience.
6.1.4 Good listening and non-interrupting the other party
(حُسْن الاستماع وعدم مُقاطعة الطّرف الآخر):
The person involved must be good at listening and listening to the other party, and should not limit his thinking to respond to the person speaking during his speech and not pay attention to others.
6.1.5. Respect for the other party (احترام الطّرف الآخر):
The dialogue between the parties must be based on respect for each other and speak in a proper manner and words. They should not turn the dialogue into a duel of words that are offensive and insulting. Rather, it is necessary to appreciate each other and give each party the right to talk.
6.1.6 Devotion (الإخلاص) :
The interlocutor must be sincere and have a clear goal of dialogue to reach the truth, away from showing off and showing self in front of others, and he must stop dialogue if the state of conflict and conflict to maintain the etiquette of dialogue.
- Kinds of Dialogue : (أنواع الحوار)
The dialogue has multiple types, and is classified according to the type of case discussed by the parties or groups such as:
- Religious dialogue: (الحِوار الدّيني) It is a dialogue between group of parties who are different in the religion they embrace. It discusses the teachings of different religions.
- National dialogue: (الحِوار الوطني) It is a dialogue based on discussion of national issues through public institutions.
- Political dialogue: (الحِوار السّياسي) It is of great importance at the level of the whole world, as it results in the conclusion of peace agreements and different treaties between States, as well as the discussion of issues and problems of borders.
- Social dialogue: (الحِوار الاجتماعي) Social dialogues are held in government institutions and civil institutions, in which social issues are discussed.
- Economic dialogue: (الحِوار الاقتصادي) These type of dialogues are conducted through television interviews, economic forums, or by holding economic conferences, in which experts discuss all economic visions.
- Educational dialogue: (الحِوار التّربوي) It is a dialogue established by educational institutions with the concerned people, such as intellectuals and educational researchers through the holding of educational conferences, with the aim of disseminating the correct educational ideas.
- Security Dialogue: (الحِوار الأمني) Security dialogues are held in security institutions to discuss important security issues such as drug issues, crime, fire, traffic accidents and many more, through conferences and security researches.
- Sports dialogue: (الحِوار الرّياضي) Such dialogues are held through exhibitions or conferences in sports clubs, and their purpose is to publish any new information or law.
- Automatic dialogue: (الحِوار التّلقائي) It is a spontaneous dialogue that takes place in everyday events, in homes, in telephone calls or in any daily meeting between people, and such dialogues do not focus on a specific topic.
- Difference between dialogue and debate (الفرق بين الحِوار والجِدال)
7.1.1 Dialogue means the revision of speech. The argument is used for those who argue and act on the appearance of truth. It is also used to meet the evidence for the appearance of the most likely. Allah says:  قَدْ سَمِعَ اللَّهُ قَوْلَ الَّتِي تُجَادِلُكَ فِي زَوْجِهَا وَتَشْتَكِي إِلَى اللَّهِ وَاللَّهُ يَسْمَعُ تَحَاوُرَكُمَا إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ People know that dialogue and debate are a discussion between two or more parties with the intention of demonstrating a certain argument, proving right, and responding to corruption.
- Concept of interfaith Dialogue in different Religion: (مفهوم الحوار بين الأديان في مختلف الدين)
- Islam : ( الاسلام)
Islam has long encouraged dialogue to reach truth. Dialogue is particularly encouraged amongst the People of the Book (Jews, Christians and Muslims) as Qur’an states:
قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَى كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ
“Say, “O People of the Scripture, come to a word that is equitable between us and you – that we will not worship except Allah and not associate anything with Him and not take one another as lords instead of Allah.” But if they turn away, then say, “Bear witness that we are Muslims
Many traditional and religious texts and customs of the faith have encouraged this, including specific verses in the Quran:
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُمْ مِنْ ذَكَرٍ وَأُنْثَى وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ
“O people! Behold, we have created you from a male and a female and have made you into nations and tribes so that you might come to know one another. Verily, the noblest of you in the sight of God is the one who is most deeply conscious of Him. Behold, God is all-knowing, all-aware.”
In recent times, Muslim theologians have advocated inter-faith dialogue on a large scale, something which is new in a political sense. The declaration A Common Word of 2007 was a public first in Christian-Islam relations, trying to work out a moral common ground on many social issues. This common ground was stated as “part of the very foundational principles of both faiths: love of the One God, and love of the neighbour.” The declaration asserted that “these principles are found over and over again in the sacred texts of Islam and Christianity.” Relations between Muslims and Jews remain quite difficult, exacerbated by the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. There are inter-Muslim issues in between Sunnis and Shiites that are very much unresolved in the Middle East. Also, relations between Muslims and Hindus in India and Pakistan could theoretically be much better if interfaith efforts were more successful.
8.2 Christianity: ( المسيحية)
Traditional Christian doctrine is Christocentric, meaning that Christ is held to be the sole full and true revelation of the will of God for humanity. In a Christocentric view, the elements of truth in other religions are understood in relation to the fullness of truth found in Christ. God is nevertheless understood to be free of human constructions. Therefore, God the Holy Spirit is understood as the power who guides non-Christians in their search for truth, which is held to be a search for the mind of Christ, even if “anonymously,” in the phrase of Catholic theologian Karl Rahner. For those who support this view, anonymous Christians belong to Christ now and forever and lead a life fit for Jesus’ commandment to love, even though they never explicitly understand the meaning of their life in Christian terms.
Pope John Paul II was a major advocate of interfaith dialogue, promoting meetings in Assisi in the 1980s. Pope Benedict XVI took a more moderate and cautious approach, stressing the need for intercultural dialogue, but reasserting Christian theological identity in the revelation of Jesus of Nazareth in a book published with Marcello Pera in 2004. In 2013, Pope Francis became the first Catholic leader to call for “sincere and rigorous” inter belief dialogue with atheists, both to counter the assertion that Christianity is necessarily an “expression of darkness of superstition that is opposed to the light of reason,” and to assert that “dialogue is not a secondary accessory of the existence of the believer” but instead is a “profound and indispensable expression … faith is not intransigent, but grows in coexistence that respects the other.”
In traditional Christian doctrine, the value of inter-religious dialogue had been confined to acts of love and understanding toward others either as anonymous Christians or as potential converts. In mainline liberal Protestant traditions, however, as well as in the emerging church, these doctrinal constraints have largely been cast off. Many theologians, pastors, and lay people from these traditions do not hold to uniquely Christocentric understandings of how God was in Christ. They engage deeply in interfaith dialogue as learners, not converters, and desire to celebrate as fully as possible the many paths to God.
Much focus in Christian interfaith dialogue has been put on Christian–Jewish reconciliation. One of the oldest successful dialogues between Jews and Christians took place in Mobile, Alabama. It began in the wake of the call of the Second Vatican Council (1962–1965) of the Roman Catholic Church for increased understanding between Christians and Jews. The organization has recently moved its center of activity to Spring Hill College, a Catholic, Jesuit institution of higher learning located in Mobile. Reconciliation has been successful on many levels, but has been somewhat complicated by the Arab-Israeli conflict in the Middle East, where a significant minority of Arabs are Christian.
8.3 Judaism: (يهودية)
The Modern Orthodox movement allows narrow exchanges on social issues, while warning to be cautious in discussion of doctrine. Reform Judaism, Reconstructionist Judaism and Conservative Judaism encourage interfaith dialogue.
Building positive relations between Jews and members of other religious communities has been an integral component of Reform Judaism’s “DNA” since the movement was founded in Germany during the early 19th century, according to Rabbi A. James Rudin. It began with Israel Jacobson, a layman and pioneer in the development of what emerged as Reform Judaism, who established an innovative religious school in Sessen, Germany in 1801 that initially had 40 Jewish and 20 Christian students. “Jacobson’s innovation of a ‘mixed’ student body reflected his hopes for a radiant future between Jews and Christians.”  Moravian born Rabbi Isaac Mayer Wise, who founded the Reform movement in the United States, sought close relations with Christian church leaders. To that end, he published a series of lectures in 1883 entitled “Judaism and Christianity: Their Agreements and Disagreements.” Wise emphasized what he believed linked the two religions in an inextricable theological and human bond: the biblical “Sinaitic revelation” as …”the acknowledged law of God.” 
Rabbi Leo Baeck, the leader of the German Jewish community who survived his incarceration in the Terezin concentration camp, offered these prescient words in his 1949 presidential address to the World Union for Progressive Judaism in London: “…as in a great period of the Middle Ages, [Jews and Muslims] are …almost compelled to face each other… not only in the sphere of policy [the State of Israel in the Middle East], but also in the sphere of religion; there is the great hope… they will …meet each other on joint roads, in joint tasks, in joint confidences in the future. There is the great hope that Judaism can thus become the builder of a bridge, the ‘pontifex’ between East and West.” 
In the 1950s and 60s, as interfaith civic partnerships between Jews and Christians in the United States became more numerous, especially in the suburbs, the Union of American Hebrew Congregations (now the Union for Reform Judaism, URJ) created a department mainly to promote positive Christian-Jewish relations and civic partnerships. Interfaith relations have since been expanded to include Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists, and members of other faith communities.
In 2013, Rabbi Marc Schneier and Imam Shamsi Ali coauthored a book Sons of Abraham: A Candid Conversation about the Issues That Divide and Unite Jews and Muslims. Schneier and Ali wrote about the importance of civil interfaith discussions. Based on their experience, Schneier and Ali believed that other “Jews and Muslims can realize that they are actually more united than divided in their core beliefs.”
8.4 Hinduism: (الهندوسية)
In 1893, the first World Parliament of Religions was held in Chicago, USA. This was a unique event which invited people from the main different religious traditions. The Parliament was a resounding success; in particular, Swami Vivekananda, touched the hearts and minds of the participants through his clarion call for religious unity and religious tolerance. He Said “As different streams, having their sources in different places, all mingle their water in the sea, so, O Lord, the different paths which men take through different tendencies, various though they appear, crooked or straight, all lead to Thee.”
Being a spiritual man, I must say that there is only one religion. You call it Christianity, I call it Hinduism, somebody calls it Judaism and somebody else calls it Islam. But there is only one religion. So when there is one religion, there cannot be nearness or distance. There are many branches of the religion-tree, but there is only one religion, and that religion is God-realisation. The ultimate Goal of all religion is God-realisation. Religions may fight on the way to the goal, but at the end of the journey they become most intimate friends, and then they feel that they were all the time together on the same journey, only following different paths. True, sincere followers of any religion, Christianity, Hinduism, Buddhism or Judaism, will never find fault in the truths of other religions. They know that the ultimate Truth exists in each religion.
8.5 Buddhism: (البوذية)
Buddhism has historically been open to other religions. As Ven. Dr. K. Sri Dhammananda has stated “Buddhism is a religion which teaches people to ‘live and let live’. In the history of the world, there is no evidence to show that Buddhists have interfered or done any damage to any other religion in any part of the world for the purpose of introducing their religion. Buddhists do not regard the existence of other religions as a hindrance to worldly progress and peace.” We believe that Buddhist Muslim persecution is an isolated incident in Rohingya. There is no deal with Buddhist religious sprit.
The fourteenth century Zen master Gasan Joseki indicated that the Gospels were written by an enlightened being “The 14th Dalai Lama has done a great deal of interfaith work throughout his life. He believes that the “common aim of all religions, an aim that everyone must try to find, is to foster tolerance, altruism and love”. He met with Pope Paul VI at the Vatican in 1973. He met with Pope John Paul II in 1980 and also later in 1982, 1986, 1988, 1990, and 2003. During 1990, he met in Dharamsala with a delegation of Jewish teachers for an extensive interfaith dialogue. He has since visited Israel three times and met during 2006 with the Chief Rabbi of Israel. In 2006, he met privately with Pope Benedict XVI. He has also met the late Archbishop of Canterbury Dr. Robert Runcie, and other leaders of the Anglican Church in London, Gordon B. Hinckley, late President of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons), as well as senior Eastern Orthodox Church, Muslim, Hindu, Jewish, and Sikh officials”.
In 2010, the Dalai Lama was joined by Rev. Katharine Jefferts Schori, presiding bishop of the Episcopal Church, Chief Rabbi Lord Jonathan Sacks of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth, and Islamic scholar Professor Seyyed Hossein Nasr of George Washington University when Emory University’s Center for the Study of Law and Religion hosted a “Summit on Happiness”.
- Interfaith Dialogue in the Noble Quran: (الحوار بين الأديان في القرآن الكريم)
Human history has recorded some dialogues by some of the callers to convince and attract the largest number of their people. Previous revealed books also recorded many dialogues between the apostles and the prophets, in which the honorable prophets endure difficulties in the sanctity of the duty incumbent on them. The noble Quran has reference to these dialogues and multiple methods. There is dialogue prophet Noah (A) with his people in Surah Nuh 
قَالَ رَبِّ إِنِّي دَعَوْتُ قَوْمِي لَيْلًا وَنَهَارًا…. لِتَسْلُكُوا مِنْهَا سُبُلًا فِجَاجًا
and the dialogue between Ibrahim (A) and his people in Surah Al-Anbiya from 
إ ِذْ قَالَ لِأَبِيهِ وَقَوْمِهِ مَا هَذِهِ التَّمَاثِيلُ الَّتِي أَنْتُمْ لَهَا عَاكِفُونَ….. أُفٍّ لَكُمْ وَلِمَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ أَفَلَا تَعْقِلُون
and Surah Al-Anam
وَإِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ لِأَبِيهِ آزَرَ أَتَتَّخِذُ أَصْنَامًا آلِهَةً إِنِّي أَرَاكَ وَقَوْمَكَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ…… الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَلَمْ يَلْبِسُوا إِيمَانَهُمْ بِظُلْمٍ أُولَئِكَ لَهُمُ الْأَمْنُ وَهُمْ مُهْتَدُونَ
and in the Surah Bakarah 
أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِي حَاجَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ فِي رَبِّهِ أَنْ آتَاهُ اللَّهُ الْمُلْكَ إِذْ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ رَبِّيَ الَّذِي يُحْيِي وَيُمِيتُ قَالَ أَنَا أُحْيِي وَأُمِيتُ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ يَأْتِي بِالشَّمْسِ مِنَ الْمَشْرِقِ فَأْتِ بِهَا مِنَ الْمَغْرِبِ فَبُهِتَ الَّذِي كَفَرَ وَاللَّهُ لَا يَهْدِي الْقَوْمَ الظَّالِمِينَ
There is also a dialogue of Musa (A) peace is upon him in Surah Suarah 
قَالَ أَلَمْ نُرَبِّكَ فِينَا وَلِيدًا وَلَبِثْتَ فِينَا مِنْ عُمُرِكَ سِنِينَ… إِنَّا نَطْمَعُ أَنْ يَغْفِرَ لَنَا رَبُّنَا خَطَايَانَا أَنْ كُنَّا أَوَّلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ
and dialogues of Jesus in Surah Nisah 
 .يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ لَا تَغْلُوا فِي دِينِكُمْ وَلَا تَقُولُوا عَلَى اللَّهِ إِلَّا الْحَقَّ إِنَّمَا الْمَسِيحُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ وَكَلِمَتُهُ أَلْقَاهَا إِلَى مَرْيَمَ وَرُوحٌ مِنْهُ فَآمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرُسُلِهِ وَلَا تَقُولُوا ثَلَاثَةٌ انْتَهُوا خَيْرًا لَكُمْ إِنَّمَا اللَّهُ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ سُبْحَانَهُ أَنْ يَكُونَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَكَفَى بِاللَّهِ وَكِيلًا (171) لَنْ يَسْتَنْكِفَ الْمَسِيحُ أَنْ يَكُونَ عَبْدًا لِلَّهِ وَلَا الْمَلَائِكَةُ الْمُقَرَّبُونَ وَمَنْ يَسْتَنْكِفْ عَنْ عِبَادَتِهِ وَيَسْتَكْبِرْ فَسَيَحْشُرُهُمْ إِلَيْهِ جَمِيعًا
and in Surah Maidah 
لَتَجِدَنَّ أَشَدَّ النَّاسِ عَدَاوَةً لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الْيَهُودَ وَالَّذِينَ أَشْرَكُوا وَلَتَجِدَنَّ أَقْرَبَهُمْ مَوَدَّةً لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا الَّذِينَ قَالُوا إِنَّا نَصَارَى ذَلِكَ بِأَنَّ مِنْهُمْ قِسِّيسِينَ وَرُهْبَانًا وَأَنَّهُمْ لَا يَسْتَكْبِرُونَ
There are so many instances in the noble Quran about dialogue with other belief and cults. There are important references to the dialogues of the Prophet Mohammad peace be upon him with the Christians of Najran and with the Christians of Abyssinia, and so many instant in the history of Islam process of dialogue within the nation and with others.
- Interfaith Dialogue in the Hadith : (الحوار بين الأديان في الحديث الشريف )
Our Prophet (sm) had done interfaith dialogue with the Christian and Jesus people at Madinah. Not only that he had discussed with the people of dilatory for exploring the message of Islam to them.
10.1. Dialogue with Jews people:
Prophet Mohammed (sm) went to the Midraj of Yahud to discuss on theology of Islam, creator and other thing. Abdullah Ibn Abbas said :
حدثنا أبو كريب قال، حدثنا يونس قال، حدثنا محمد بن إسحاق قال، حدثني محمد بن أبي محمد مولى زيد بن ثابت قال، حدثني سعيد بن جبير وعكرمة، عن ابن عباس قال: دخل رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بيت المِدْرَاس على جماعة من يهود، فدعاهم إلى الله، فقال له نعيم بن عمرو، (3) والحارث ابن زيد: على أيّ دين أنت يا محمد؟ فقال: ” على ملة إبراهيم ودينه. فقالا فإنّ إبراهيم كان يهوديًّا! فقال لهما رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم: فهلمُّوا إلى التوراة، فهي بيننا وبينكم! فأبيا عليه، (4) فأنـزل الله عز وجل: ” ألم تَر إلى الذين أوتوا نصيبًا من الكتاب يُدْعونَ إلى كتاب الله ليحكم بينهم ثم يَتولى فريق منهم وهم معرضون ” إلى قوله: مَا كَانُوا يَفْتَرُونَ
This Hadith shows how Prophet (sm) went to the Midras (Worship Place of Jeuse) and discussed about religious theology with comparative study and convinced them.
10.2: Dialogue with Christian:
There are so many instance of dialogue of Prophet (sm) with Christian people. We have known the famous dialogue of the delegates of Nazran and dialogue about Maryam (a) mother of Isa (a) and dialogue with famous Christian Adi Ibn Hatim.
10.3: Dialogue with Idolatry:
Prophet (sm) did dialogue with idolatry believers at Makkah those are relatives and no relatives. Prophet (sm) said:
يا معشر قريش! إنه ليس أحد يعبد من دون الله فيه خير – وقد علمت قريش أن النصارى تعبد عيسى ابن مريم، وما تقول في محمد-؛ فقالوا: يا محمد! ألست تزعم أن عيسى كان نبياً وعبداً من عباد الله صالحاً؟! فلئن كنت صادقاً فإن آلهتهم لكما يقولون- (الأصل: تقولون!)-، قال: فأنزل الله عز وجل: (ولما ضرب ابن مريم مثلاً إذا قومك منه يصدون) (الزخرف: 57) قال: قلت: ما (يصدون)؟ قال: يضجُّون. (وإنه لعلم للساعة)( الزخرف: 61)، قال: هو خروج (وفي رواية: نزول) عيسى ابن مريم عليه السلام قبل يوم القيامة
There are at lot of instance in the Hadith that proved Prophet (sm) dialogue with different religious people about religious theology and social issues for advancement of the society and Islam.
- Rejection of Interfaith Dialogue in Islam : (رفض الحوار بين الأديان في الإسلام)
It is proved that Islam always welcome dialogue with different religions, cult’s, beliefs and civilizations on the basis of above conditions. But if dialogue goes further way except above conditions then Islam totally cancels any types of dialogue. Some scholars said interfaith or any other dialogue should disapprove if we found following things:
11.1: Compromise on Tawhid :
(حل وسط على التوحيد، ورسالة، والركيزة الأساسية للإسلام)
If anyone compromise or do condition of amalgamation about oneness of Allah Tallah or Risalat and any other obligatory duties of Islam then dialogue should be rejected. Allah said:
لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ فَقَالَ يَا قَوْمِ اعْبُدُوا اللَّهَ مَا لَكُم مِّنْ إِلَٰهٍ غَيْرُهُ إِنِّي أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ عَذَابَ يَوْمٍ عَظِيمٍ
“Indeed, we sent Nuh (Noah) to his people and he said: “O my people! Worship Allah! You have no other Ilah (God) but Him. Certainly, I fear for you the torment of a Great Day!”
11.2: Risalat and basic pillar of Islam:
In any discussion or dialogue of religious matters, will have to maintain the superiority the Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). Islam will not allow any discussion if someone wants to talk risalat of dignity of Prophet (sm). Allah says:
مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا
Muhammad is not the father of [any] one of your men, but [he is] the Messenger of Allah and last of the prophets. And ever is Allah, of all things, Knowing.
11.3 Syncretism: (التوفيق بين المعتقدات)
Syncretism means combining different beliefs, while blending practices of various schools of thought. Syncretism involves the merging or assimilation of several originally discrete traditions, especially in the theology and mythology of religion, thus asserting an underlying unity and allowing for an inclusive approach to other faiths. If there is a fear of the existence of religion, or through the introduction of new theories through inter-religious discussions, or it is said that a new religious culture will be created of good things of all religions, then it is totally prohibited in Islam. Din-e-Ilahi of Akbar didn’t support Ulema of Islam. Allah clearly said about truth of religion:
وَلَا تَلْبِسُوا الْحَقَّ بِالْبَاطِلِ وَتَكْتُمُوا الْحَقَّ وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
And mix not truth with falsehood, nor conceal the truth while you know (the truth).
11.4: Compromise (مرونة)
Muslims will participate in an inter-religious discussion to highlight the beauty of religion to others. Islam has no chance of any compromise regarding any interest or benefit of the world. If someone does that, then his faith will be destroyed. Rather. in the discussion, Allah clearly says:
قُلْ يَا أَهْلَ الْكِتَابِ تَعَالَوْا إِلَىٰ كَلِمَةٍ سَوَاءٍ بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمْ أَلَّا نَعْبُدَ إِلَّا اللَّهَ وَلَا نُشْرِكَ بِهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَتَّخِذَ بَعْضُنَا بَعْضًا أَرْبَابًا مِّن دُونِ اللَّهِ ۚ فَإِن تَوَلَّوْا فَقُولُوا اشْهَدُوا بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ
Say: “O People of the Book! Come to common terms as between us and you: That we worship none but Allah; that we associate no partners with him; that we erect not, from among ourselves, Lords and patrons other than Allah.” If then they turn back, say ye: “Bear witness that we (at least) are Muslims (bowing to Allah’s Will).
- Dialogue in the Muslim World: (الحوار في العالم الإسلامي)
The Prophet (S) was inviting (Dawah) the people of all religions to Islam in many ways. One of these shows the superiority of Islam by discussing theology and society with the people of different religions and folk believers of Arab at that time. Noted that, this method of Prophet sometimes (S) was used extensively and sometime slow in the history of Islamic D`awah. In this age of globalization, this intellectual method is more powerful than ever before. Hope is that the Muslim world is much more aware in this event than ever. Saudi government has established a Vienna-based Interfaith Center named King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz International Centre for Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue, globally known as KAICIID for inter-religious discussions across the world. International Islamic organizations also came forward in this regard. The topic discussed below:
12.1 Muslim World League: (رابطة العالم الإسلامي)
Arabic name of Muslim world league Rabitatul Alam Al Islami . This is a unique charity organization funded by Saudi Arabia. It took several programs for enhancing interfaith and interreligious relation.
In Taipei, Taiwan, Muslim World League in cooperation with Chinese Muslim Association 18-19 Rabuil AlAwwal 1432AH, corresponding to 21-22 February 2011 organized a dialogue title “A Human Common Bond” The Conference was opened by H.E. Ma Ying- jeou, President of Taiwan who delivered a speech in which he emphasized that the civilization dialogue is highly significant as it helps all parties surmount substantial differences as well as crisis and strengthens human communalities to establish sustainable peaceful coexistence among different communities.
MWL organized a conference in Geneva – Switzerland dated Shawwal 11-12, 1430 H corresponding September 30-October 1st, 2009. Theme of the Conference was “Initiative of the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques for Inter Religious Dialogue and its Impact in Disseminating Human Values” where all religious leaders around the world were presented.
MWL organized an impressive dialogue session In Madrid in Spain among the top religious leader of the world and they declared common preamble for peaceful world: The world today is unfortunately witnessing painful phenomena that make the sagacious people of all religions, sects and creeds sleepless. This is clearly seen in many aspects. In fact, mankind suffers from family disintegration and moral decay, environmental pollution, wars and conflicts that made the hearts of wise men bleed and constitute an extremely disturbing incident that urges all people to seek salvation of mankind from its excruciating pains. The whole world looks forward to the followers and leaders of religions and cultures to make substantial contribution in the salvation of mankind from the dangers that surround it and threaten its future as well as presentation of effective solutions.
In fact, religions and considerable cultures possess a joint viewpoint in detecting the danger of contemporary challenges. In consideration of the keenness for cooperation in whatever makes man happy, the Heavenly revealed Message sent to achieve a great objective represented in the Hadith ( Prophets are like brothers belonging to one father but to different mothers; their Lord is one but their particular legislatures are different ).
Furthermore, religions have agreed with considerable philosophies on certain areas that can be exploited for making further advancement in wider horizons in the fight of vices, moral decay, family disintegration, and spread of atheism as well as other conflicts.
Dialogue among sagacious people of all nations is the most effective way for pinpointing the areas of agreement, the seeking for their exploitation, promotion as well as formulating of common programs of action. The fruitful dialogue is one that is based on common human aspects and seeks to achieve the best types of acquaintance, coexistence and cooperation with others despite the difference with them in religions and cultures. With the dialogue that aims at deepening the culture of coexistence, we can marginalize the forces that still instigate actively hatred and call for inflaming dispute, malice, selfishness, and conceitedness.
Contemporary and fruitful dialogues with the people of religions on the basis of the Quranic call, as happened in the Vatican in 1978, in Leeds 2002 England, in Lyon, France in 2005 and other meetings in Milan and Naples. All dialogues were based on the values of justice and rejection of injustice.
12.2 KAICIID Dialogue Centre: (مركز الحوار KAICIID)
King Abdullah bin Abdulaziz International Centre for Interreligious and Intercultural Dialogue, globally known by its abbreviation, KAICIID, is an inter-governmental organization that promotes inter-religious dialogue to prevent and resolve conflict. KAICIID was opened in 2012 by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, the Republic of Austria and the Kingdom of Spain, following the initiative of King Abdullah of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques. The Holy See is a founding observer.
The international organization, KAICIID, is headquartered in Vienna, Austria, focusing on facilitating intercultural and interreligious dialogue. Its mission is to promote peace, tolerance and understanding among people of different faiths and cultures. KAICIID’s work includes using dialogue to support peace building and social cohesion efforts in conflict areas.
Crucially, KAICIID seeks to promote human rights, justice, peace and reconciliation, as well as curb the abuse of religion as a means to justify oppression, violence and conflict. It promotes the preservation and sacredness of holy sites, as well as respect for religious symbols, and focuses on issues pertaining to the dignity of human life and religious education.
12.3 Doha International Center for Interfaith Dialogue: (مركز الدوحة الدولي للحوار بين الأديان)
Doha International Center for Interfaith Dialogue (DICID) was established as a result of a recommendation of the Fifth Doha Interfaith Conference on May 2007 in Doha. The center was opened officially in May 2008. The main role of the centre will primarily be to spread the culture of dialogue, the peaceful coexistence of humanity and the acceptance of others. Dr. Ibrahim Al- Naimi is the Chairman of Doha International Center for Interfaith Dialogue.
12.4 Activities of DICID: (DICID أنشطة)
Annual Conference: (مؤتمر سنوي) The Centre holds annual conference for interfaith dialogue among religions, discussing important humanitarian issues. It will be addressed from the perspective of every religion, to reach common conclusions, and make them serve values of justice and peace. From the perspectives of the world monotheistic religions we seek to reach common and harmonious cooperation and a genuine desire to lay the foundations of world peace. And for that very reason we as a team of true believers and promoters of the inter-faith dialogue wish to share our vision with the global community, to resolve world conflicts and restore peace and harmony.
Symposiums: (الندوات) There are specialized symposiums and seminars discussing various topics of common concerns between different religions inside Qatar and abroad. These symposiums are published regularly.
Scientific Journal: (مجلة علمية) The Centre publishes periodical journal in Arabic and English language. The journal is scientific; it contains many researches, discussing various intellectual, humanitarian and dialogical issues.
Researches & Studies: (البحوث والدراسات) The Center sets researches and studies in numerous and various fields such as the common denominators among faiths and field studies of priority issues and indicator analysis of the Center performance.
Translation Services: (خدمات الترجمة) The Center will do translation services on articles and research studies relevant to the dialogue between religions in addition to the interpretation of conferences and symposia organized by the Centre.
Other Programs: (برامج أخرى) It is a series of educational programs and youth activities related to the dialogue including cultural trips and youth camps, inside Qatar and abroad.
12.5 Organization of Islamic Conference and Muslim worlds: (منظمة المؤتمر الإسلامي والعالم الإسلامي)
Organization of Islamic cooperation did several conferences, seminars and symposium on Interfaith Dialogue through the World. Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) Iyad Ameen Madani delivered a welcoming speech at an international symposium on promoting multiculturalism and multi-faith coexistence in Bangkok, Thailand on 11 January 2016. In his welcoming speech, the OIC Secretary General said there are challenges in improving inter-cultural and inter-religious relations and that the symposium and similar initiatives are crucial in creating dialogue and understanding. He also said that the OIC, despite difficulties in this sphere, strives to understand and be understood and also facilitate fruitful discussions, . They organized several dialogues at London, Vatican, America Egypt and Indonesia. Muslim world now a days felt the importance of inter Religious dialogue and this culture contribute a lot for present peaceful society in the world. United Nations has great deal to promote interfaith culture through the World.
Provided above all references and documents proved that interfaith dialogue is an integral part of Islam and one of the important ways of preaching Islam and d`awah activity. Muslims of the world are facing accusation of terrorism, threat of ISIS and Al-Kaida and Islamofobia propaganda. Interfaith dialogue is one of the important policies for removing all misunderstanding among the people of the world especially in Europe and America. As a believer and belonging follower of Islam we believe if we strongly show positive argument through Al-Quran and Sunnah then the world will become more peaceful for all religions and humankind.
 . Surah An-nahal , 16:125
 . http://legacy.archchicago.org/departments/ecumenical/Relations.htm,07.07.2017
 . Muhammad Abu Kalif Said in Journal ‘Akher Tahdis in April 2017
 . Dr.Saad Ali Shahrani, Al Hiwar fil Quran and Sunnah, quoted from http.mwl.org dated.2.12.2017
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